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Survey methods

Whether your data require simple weighted adjustment because of differential sampling rates or you have data from a complex multistage survey, Stata's survey features can provide you with correct standard errors and confidence intervals for your inferences. All you need to do is specify the relevant characteristics of your sampling design, including sampling weights (including weights at multiple stages), clustering (at one, two, or more stages), stratification, and poststratification. After that, most of Stata's estimation commands can adjust their estimates to correct for your sampling design.

Survey regression models

See multilevel models with survey data

See generalized SEM models for survey data

Variance and standard-error estimates

  • Taylor-series linearization (Huber/White/sandwich)
  • Balanced and repeated replications (BRR)
  • Survey jackknife
  • Bootstrap (with bootstrap replicate weights)
  • Successive difference replication (SDR)

Sampling designs

  • Sampling (probability) weights
  • Stratification
  • Clustering
  • Multistage designs
  • Weights at each sampling stage
  • Finite population correction in all stages
  • Support for strata with one sampling unit


  • Poststratification
  • Weight calibration via the raking-ratio method
  • Weight calibration via the generalized regression (GREG) method
  • Design effects
  • Misspecification effects
  • Effects for linear combinations
  • Coefficient of variation
  • Estimate linear/nonlinear combinations of parameters
  • Hypotheses tests for survey data
  • Estimation with linear constraints
  • Goodness of fit for logistic and probit estimators
  • Multiple imputation

Maximum pseudolikelihood estimation

  • User-defined likelihoods
  • Survey characteristics automatically handled

Summary statistics

  • Population and subpopulation means
  • Population and subpopulation standard deviations
  • Population and subpopulation proportions
  • Population and subpopulation ratios
  • Population and subpopulation totals
  • Provide full covariance estimates across subpopulations

Summary tables

  • Two-way contingency tables with tests of independence
  • One-way tables
  • Table describing the sampling design of survey data

Postestimation Selector

  • View and run all postestimation features for your command
  • Automatically updated as estimation commands are run

Factor variables

  • Automatically create indicators based on categorical variables
  • Form interactions among discrete and continuous variables
  • Include polynomial terms
  • Perform contrasts of categories/levels
Watch Introduction to Factor Variables in Stata tutorials

Marginal analysis

  • Estimated marginal means
  • Marginal and partial effects
  • Average marginal and partial effects
  • Least-squares means
  • Predictive margins
  • Adjusted predictions, means, and effects
  • Works with multiple outcomes simultaneously
  • Contrasts of margins
  • Pairwise comparisons of margins
  • Profile plots
  • Interaction plots
  • Graphs of margins and marginal effects
Watch Profile plots and interaction plots in Stata tutorials

Additional resources

See New in Stata 18 to learn about what was added in Stata 18.