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Note:This FAQ is for Stata 10 and older versions of Stata.

In Stata 11, the margins command can be used to calculate least square means.

## How do I calculate least square means in Stata?

 Title Use of adjust Author Weihua Guan, StataCorp

Currently there is no convenient command in Stata to calculate the least square means, but one may use the adjust command to compute them manually. LSMEANS are just the predicted linear combination xb while holding the other covariates at values 1/n, where n is the number of categories in the corresponding discrete covariates. For continuous covariates, one just holds their values at their means when making the prediction.

Following is an example using the auto dataset:

 . sysuse auto, clear
(1978 Automobile Data)

. anova mpg foreign rep78

Number of obs =      69     R-squared     =  0.2825
Root MSE      = 5.16246     Adj R-squared =  0.2256

Source |  Partial SS    df       MS           F     Prob > F
-----------+----------------------------------------------------
Model |  661.189524     5  132.237905       4.96     0.0007
|
foreign |  111.773747     1  111.773747       4.19     0.0447
rep78 |  179.189006     4  44.7972516       1.68     0.1655
|
Residual |  1679.01337    63  26.6510059
-----------+----------------------------------------------------
Total |   2340.2029    68  34.4147485

. xi: regress mpg i.foreign i.rep78
i.foreign         _Iforeign_0-1       (naturally coded; _Iforeign_0 omitted)
i.rep78           _Irep78_1-5         (naturally coded; _Irep78_1 omitted)

Source |       SS       df       MS              Number of obs =      69
-------------+------------------------------           F(  5,    63) =    4.96
Model |  661.189524     5  132.237905           Prob > F      =  0.0007
Residual |  1679.01337    63  26.6510059           R-squared     =  0.2825
Total |   2340.2029    68  34.4147485           Root MSE      =  5.1625

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
mpg |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
_Iforeign_1 |   3.556584   1.736681     2.05   0.045     .0861047    7.027064
_Irep78_2 |     -1.875   4.081284    -0.46   0.648     -10.0308    6.280795
_Irep78_3 |  -1.922325   3.774126    -0.51   0.612    -9.464315    5.619665
_Irep78_4 |  -1.111626   3.944633    -0.28   0.779    -8.994345    6.771094
_Irep78_5 |   3.453704   4.215132     0.82   0.416    -4.969565    11.87697
_cons |         21   3.650411     5.75   0.000     13.70524    28.29476
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

. adjust _Irep78_2=.2 _Irep78_3=.2 _Irep78_4=.2 _Irep78_5=.2, by(foreign) se

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dependent variable: mpg     Command: regress
Variable left as is: _Iforeign_1
Covariates set to value: _Irep78_2 = .2, _Irep78_3 = .2, _Irep78_4 = .2,
_Irep78_5 = .2
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------
Car type |         xb        stdp
----------+----------------------
Domestic |     20.709   (1.04909)
Foreign |    24.2655   (1.55104)
----------------------------------
Key:  xb    =  Linear Prediction
stdp  =  Standard Error


There are five outcomes in the variable rep78. The values of the dummy variables _Irep* are held as 1/5 = 0.2.

Given that adjust is just another form of predict, we could also use predict to reproduce the results.