Preface

Acknowledgements

Part I - The Research Process and Data Collection

Chapter 1 - The Research Process

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Read the Literature and Identify Gaps or Ways to Extend the Literature

1.3 Examine the Theory

1.4 Develop Your Research Questions and Hypotheses

1.5 Develop Your Research Method

1.6 Analyze the Data

1.7 Write the Research Paper

Exercises

References

Chapter 2 - Sampling Techniques

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Sample Design

2.3 Selecting a Sample

2.3.1 Probability and Nonprobability Sampling

2.3.2 Identifying a Sampling Frame

2.3.3 Determining the Sample Size

2.3.4 Sample Selection Methods

2.4 Sampling Weights

2.4.1 Calculating Sampling Weights

2.4.2 Using Sampling Weights

Exercises

References

Chapter 3 - Questionaire Design

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Structured and Semi-Structured Questionnaires

3.3 Open- and Closed-Ended Questions

3.4 General Guidelines for Questionnaire Design

3.5 Designing the Questions

3.5.1 Question Order

3.5.2 Phrasing the Questions

3.6 Recording Responses

3.6.1 Responses in the Form of Continuous Variables

3.6.2 Responses in the Form of Categorical Variables

3.7 Skip Patterns

3.8 Ethical Issues

Exercises

References

Part II - Describing Data

Chapter 4 - An Introduction to Stata

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Opening Stata and Stata Windows

4.2.1 Results Window

4.2.2 Review Window

4.2.3 Command Window

4.2.4 Variables Window

4.2.5 Properties Window

4.3 Working With Existing Data

4.4 Entering Your Own Data Into Stata

4.5 Using Log Files and Saving Your Work

4.6 Getting Help

4.6.1 Help Command

4.6.2 Search Command

4.6.3 Stata Website

4.6.4 UCLA's Institute for Digital Research and Education Website

4.7 Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter

Exercises

Chapter 5 - Preparing and Transforming Your Data

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Checking for Outliers

5.3 Creating New Variables

5.3.1 Generate

5.3.2 Using Operators

5.3.3 Recode

5.3.4 Egen

5.4 Missing Values in Stata

5.5 Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter

Exercises

References

Chapter 6 - Descriptive Statistics

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Types of Variables and Measurement

6.3Descriptive Statistics for All Types of Variables: Frequency Tables and Modes

6.3.1 Frequency Tables

6.3.2 Mode

6.4 Descriptive Statistics for Variables Measured as Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Scales: Median and Percentiles

6.4.1 Median

6.4.2 Percentiles

6.5 Descriptive Statistics for Categorical Variables: Mean, Variance, St
andard Deviation, and Coefficient of Variation

6.5.1 Mean

6.5.2 Variance and Standard Deviation

6.5.3 Coefficient of Variation

6.6 Descriptive Statistics for Categorical Variables Measured on a Nominal or Ordinal Scale: Cross Tabulation

6.7 Applying Sampling Weights

6.8 Formatting Output for Use in a Document (Word, Google Docs, etc.)

6.9 Graphs to describe data

6.9.1 Bar Graphs

6.9.2 Box Plots

6.9.3 Histograms

6.9.4 Pie Charts

6.10 Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter

Exercises

References

Part III - Testing Hypotheses

Chapter 7 - The Normal Distributions

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The Normal Distribution and Standard Scores

7.3 Sampling Distributions and Standard Errors

7.4 Examining the Theory and Identifying the Research Question and Hypothesis

7.5 Testing for Statistical Significance

7.6 Rejecting or Not Rejecting the Null Hypothesis

7.7 Interpreting the Results

7.8 Central Limit Theorem

7.9 Presenting the Results

7.10 Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter

Exercises

References

Chapter 8 - Testing a Hypothesis About a Single Mean

8.1 Introduction

8.2 When to Use the One-Sample *t* Test

8.3 Calculating the One-Sample *t* Test

8.4 Conducting a One-Sample *t* Test

8.5 Interpreting the Output

8.6 Presenting the Results

8.7 Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter

Exercises

References

Chapter 9 - Testing a Hypothesis About Two Independent Means

9.1 Introduction

9.2 When to Use a Two Independent-Samples *t* Test

9.3 Calculating the *t* Statistic

9.4 Conducting a *t* Test

9.5 Interpreting the Output

9.6 Presenting the Results

9.7 Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter

Exercises

References

Chapter 10 - One-Way Analysis of Variance

10.1 Introduction

10.2 When to Use One-Way ANOVA

10.3 Calculating the *F* Ratio

10.4 Conducting a One-Way ANOVA Test

10.5 Interpreting the Output

10.6 Is One Mean Different or Are All of Them Different?

10.7 Presenting he Results

10.8 Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter

Exercises

References

Chapter 11 - Cross Tabulation and the Chi-Squared Test

11.1 Introduction

11.2 When to Use the Chi-Squared Test

11.3 Calculating the Chi-Square Statistic

11.4 Conducting a Chi-Squared Test

11.5 Interpreting the Output

11.6 Presenting the Results

11.7 Sumary of Commands Used in This Chapter

Exercises

References

Part IV - Exploring Relationships

Chapter 12 - Linear Regression Analysis

12.1 Introduction

12.2 When to Use Regression Analysis

12.3 Correlation

12.4 Simple Regression Analysis

12.5 Multiple Regression Analysis

12.6 Presenting the Results

12.7 Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter

Exercises

References

Chapter 13 - Regression Diagnostics

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Measurement Error

13.3 Specification Error

13.3.1 Types of Specification Errors

13.3.2 Diagnosing Specification Error

13.3.3 Correcting Specification Error

13.4 Multicollinearity

13.5 Heteroscedasticity

13.6 Endogeneity

13.7 Nonnormality

13.8 Presenting the Results

13.9 Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter

References

Chapter 14 - Regression Analysis With Categorical Dependent Variables

14.1 Introduction

14.2 When to Use Logit or Probit Analysis

14.3 Understanding the Logit Model

14.4 Running Logit and Interpreting the Results

14.4.1 Running Logit Regression in Stata

14.4.2 Interpreting th Results of a Logit Model

14.5 Logit Versus Probit Regression Models

14.6 Regression Analysis With Other Types of Categorical Dependent Variables

14.7 Presenting the Results

14.8 Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter

Exercises

References

Part V - Writing A Research Paper

Chapter 15 - Writing A Research Paper

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Introduction Section of a Research Paper

15.3 Literature Review

15.4 Theory, Data, and Methods

15.5 Results

15.5.1 Logical Sequence

15.5.2 Tables, Figures, and Numbers

15.5.3 Reporting Results From Statistical Tests

15.5.4 Active Versus Passive Voice and the Use of First-Person Pronouns

15.6 Discussions

15.7 Conclusions

Exercises

References

Appendices

Appendix 1 - Quick Reference Guide to Stata Commands

Appendix 2 - Summary of Statistical Tests by Chapter

Appendix 3 - Decision Tree for Choosing the Right Statistic

Appendix 4 - Decision Rules for Statistical Significance

Appendix 5 - Areas Under the Normal Curve (Z Scores)

Appendix 6 - Critical Values of the *t* Distribution

Appendix 7 - Stata Code for Random Sampling

Appendix 8 - Examples of Nonlinear Functions

Appendix 9 - Estimating the Minimum Sample Size

Glossary

About the Authors

Name Index

Subject Index