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Practical Statistics for Medical Research 

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Table of contentsView table of contents >> Preface
1 Statistics in medical research
1.1 Statistics at large
1.2 Statistics in medicine 1.3 Statistics in medical research 1.4 What does statistics cover? 1.5 The scope of this book 2 Types of data
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Categorical data 2.3 Numerical data 2.4 Other types of data 2.5 Censored data 2.6 Variability 2.7 Importance of the type of dat a 2.8 Dealing with numbers 3 Describing data
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Averages 3.3 Describing variability 3.4 Quantifying variability 3.5 Two variables 3.6 The effect of transforming the data 3.7 Data presentation Exercises 4 Theoretical distribution
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Probability 4.3 Samples and populations 4.4 Probability distributions 4.5 The Normal distribution 4.6 The Lognormal distributions 4.7 The Binomial distribution 4.8 The Poisson distribution 4.9 Mathematical calculations 4.10 The Uniform distribution 4.11 Concluding remarks Exercises 5 Designing research
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Categories of research design 5.3 Sources of variation 5.4 An experiment: is the blood pressure the same in both arms? 5.5 The design of experiments 5.6 The structure of an experiment 5.7 Random allocation 5.8 Minimization 5.9 Observational studie s 5.10 The casecontrol study 5.11 The cohort study 5.12 The crosssectional study 5.13 Studies of change over time 5.14 Choosing a study design Exercises 6 Using a computer
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Advantages of using a computer 6.3 Disadvantages of using a computer 6.4 Types of statistical program 6.5 Evaluating a statistical package 6.6 Strategy for computeraided analysis 6.7 Forms for data collection 6.8 Plotting 6.9 Other uses of computers 6.10 Misuses of the computer 6.11 Concluding remarks 7 Preparing to analyse data
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Data checking 7.3 Outliers 7.4 Missing data 7.5 Data screening 7.6 Why transform data? 7.7 Other features of the data 7.8 Concluding remarks Exercises 8 Principles of statistical analysis
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Sampling distribution 8.3 A demonstration of the distribution of sample means 8.4 Estimation 8.5 Hypothesis testing 8.6 Nonparametric methods 8.7 Statistical modelling 8.8 Estimation or hypothesis testing? 8.9 Strategy for analysing data 8.10 Presentation of results 8.11 Summary Exercises 9 Comparing groups  continuous data
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Choosing an appropriate method of analysis 9.3 The t distribution 9.4 One group of observations 9.5 Two groups of paired observations 9.6 Two independent groups of observations 9.7 Analysis of skewed data 9.8 Three or more independent groups of observations 9.9 One way analysis of variance — mathematics and worked example 9.10 Presentation of results 9.11 Summary Exercises 10 Comparing groups  categorical data
10.1 Introduction
10.2 One proportion 10.3 Proportions in two independent groups 10.4 Two paired proportions 10.5 Comparing several proportions 10.6 The analysis of frequency tables 10.7 2x2 frequency tables  comparison of two proportions 10.8 2x2 k tables  comparison of several proportions 10.9 Large tables with ordered categories 10.10 kxk tables  analysis of matched variables 10.11 Comparing risks 10.12 Presentation of results 10.13 Summary Exercises 11 Relation between two continuous variables
11.1 Association, prediction and agreement
11.2 Correlation 11.3 Use and misuse of correlation 11.4 Rank correlation 11.5 Adjusting a correlation for another variable 11.6 Use of the correlation coefficient in assessing nonNormality 11.7 Correlation — mathematics and worked examples 11.8 Interpretation of correlation 11.9 Presentation of correlation 11.10 Regression 11.11 Use of regression 11.12 Extensions 11.13 Regression — mathematics and worked example 11.14 Interpretation of regression 11.15 Relation to other analyses 11.16 Presentation of regression 11.17 Regression or correlation? Exercises 12 Relation between several variables
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Analysis of variance and multiple regression 12.3 Two way analysis of variance 12.4 Multiple regression 12.5 Logistic regression 12.6 Discriminant analysis 12.7 Other methods Exercises 13 Analysis of survival times
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Survival probabilities 13.3 Comparing survival curves in two groups 13.4 Mathematical calculations and worked examples 13.5 Incorrect analyses 13.6 Modelling survival — the Cox regression model 13.7 Design of survival studies 13.8 Presentation of results Exercises 14 Some common problems in medical research
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Method comparison studies 14.3 Interrater agreement 14.4 Diagnostic tests 14.5 Reference intervals 14.6 Serial measurements 14.7 Cyclic variation Exercises 15 Clinical trials
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Design of clinical trials 15.3 Sample size 15.4 Analysis 15.5 Interpretation of results 15.6 Writing up and assessing clinical trials Exercises 16 The medical literature
16.1 Introduction
16.2 The growth of statistics in medical research 16.3 Statistics ini published papers 16.4 Reading a scientific paper 16.5 Writing a scientific paper Exercises Appendix A Mathematical notation
A1.1 Introduction
A1.2 Basic ideas A1.3 Mathematical symbols A1.4 Functions A1.5 Glossary of notation Appendix B Statistical tables
Answers to exercises
References
Index

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