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# Re: st: chi2 - use alternative expected values

 From Nick Cox To "statalist@hsphsun2.harvard.edu" Subject Re: st: chi2 - use alternative expected values Date Sat, 7 Dec 2013 17:53:38 +0000

```You'll get the same answer as when the column probabilities are
corrected in my code.

egen chi2 = sum(X2)
su chi2
di chi2tail(2,`r(mean)')

can be simplified to

su X2
di chi2tail(2, r(sum))

In other words, putting the sum of a variable into another variable
and then taking the mean of that is not needed, when -summarize-
yields the sum directly, although never as a displayed result.

Nick
njcoxstata@gmail.com

On 7 December 2013 16:42,  <mcross@exemail.com.au> wrote:
> Hi Nick,
>
> Just quickly (it's late here).
>
> Your suspicions of me flipping the columns were correct.
>
> The following explains what I'm on about...
>
> clear
> tabi 41 30 7 \ 124 62 10 , chi2 expected
> scalar pval_1 = r(p)
> bysort row : gen prop = .614 if col == 1
> bysort row : replace prop = .338 if col == 2
> bysort row : replace prop = .048 if col == 3
> bysort row : egen rowtot = sum(pop)
> gen MyExp = prop * rowtot
> gen O_E = pop - MyExp
> gen O_E2 = O_E^2
> gen X2 = O_E2/MyExp
> egen chi2 = sum(X2)
> su chi2
> di chi2tail(2,`r(mean)')
> di pval_1
>
>
> Thanks and apologies.
>
> Mike.
>
>> For stuff like this, the best advice is normally to use Mata as a
>> calculator. But Mata was introduced in Stata 9. Let's go with Mata,
>> any way, for folks on 9 up and then give Mike an alternative.
>>
>> Firing up Mata we have a matrix of frequencies
>>
>> : f = (41, 30, 7 \ 124, 62, 10)
>>
>> and a vector of column proportions
>>
>> : p = (0.048, 0.338, 0.614)
>>
>> so we can get a matrix of expected frequencies
>>
>> : fhat = rowsum(f) * p
>>
>> and Pearson chi-square statistic
>>
>> : sum((f - fhat):^2  :/ fhat)
>>   1903.354724
>>
>> I like to look at so-called Pearson residuals (to the best of my
>> knowledge, first used by Tukey)
>>
>> : (f - fhat)  :/ sqrt(fhat)
>>                   1              2              3
>>     +----------------------------------------------+
>>   1 |    19.2543253    .7081385267   -5.908903061  |
>>   2 |   37.35989483   -.5219130093   -10.05857601  |
>>     +----------------------------------------------+
>>
>> The massive chi-square statistic goes with col 1 much more and col 2
>> much less than expected (unless Mike flipped columns) and the P-value
>> on 2 df is negligible:
>>
>> : chi2tail(2, sum((f - fhat):^2  :/ fhat))
>>   0
>>
>> : strofreal(chi2tail(2, sum((f - fhat):^2  :/ fhat)), "%21x")
>>   +0.0000000000000X-3ff
>>
>> : end
>>
>> Mike could do that with Stata's matrix language, although installing
>> Jeroen Weesie's -matsum- from STB would also be a good idea. But
>> friendlier is the ancient but still serviceable -chitesti- from
>> -tab_chi- (SSC). We ravel the matrix to a vector, but we must tell
>> -chitesti- the correct df. If presented with a vector of 6 observed
>> and another vector of 6 expected, -chitesti- will think 5 df, so we
>> must override that by subtracting 3.
>>
>> chitesti 41 30  7  124 62 10  \ 78*0.048 78*0.338 78*0.614 196*0.048
>> 196*0.338 196*0.614, nfit(3) sep(0)
>>
>> observed frequencies from keyboard; expected frequencies from keyboard
>>
>>          Pearson chi2(2) =  1.9e+03   Pr =  0.000
>> likelihood-ratio chi2(2) = 758.6395   Pr =  0.000
>>
>>   +---------------------------------------------------+
>>   | observed   expected   notes   obs - exp   Pearson |
>>   |---------------------------------------------------|
>>   |       41      3.744   *          37.256    19.254 |
>>   |       30     26.364               3.636     0.708 |
>>   |        7     47.892             -40.892    -5.909 |
>>   |      124      9.408             114.592    37.360 |
>>   |       62     66.248              -4.248    -0.522 |
>>   |       10    120.344            -110.344   -10.059 |
>>   +---------------------------------------------------+
>>
>> *  1 <= expected < 5
>>
>> . ret li
>>
>> scalars:
>>                   r(k) =  6
>>                  r(df) =  2
>>                r(chi2) =  1903.354724254806
>>                   r(p) =  0
>>             r(chi2_lr) =  758.6394519065682
>>                r(p_lr) =  1.8345778320e-165
>>               r(emean) =  45.66666666666666
>>
>> Confirmation that the P-value is negligible. Massive rejection, as
>> inspection of the original frequencies would suggest.
>>
>> Nick
>> njcoxstata@gmail.com
>>
>>
>> On 7 December 2013 08:17,  <mcross@exemail.com.au> wrote:
>>> Hi Folks,
>>>
>>> A version 8 user, here.
>>>
>>> Consider the following...
>>>
>>> tabi 41 30 7 \ 124 62 10 , chi2 expected
>>> list
>>>
>>> Here Stata calculates expected values for each cell, based on the
>>> frequency of my observed values (i.e. row_total x col_total /
>>> grand_total).
>>>
>>> However, I have alternative expected values that I'd like to use (I know
>>> that frequencies of col 1, 2 and 3 should be 0.048, 0.338 and 0.614,
>>> respectively).
>>>
>>> Can I get Stata to use alternative expected values for the chi2
>>> calculation?
>>>
>>> Cheers,
>>>
>>> Mike.
>>>
>>>
>>>
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>> *
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>>
>
>
> *
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```