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st: xtregar coefficients changes sign from random effects to fixed effects


From   Lopa Chakraborti <lchakraborti@arec.umd.edu>
To   "statalist@hsphsun2.harvard.edu" <statalist@hsphsun2.harvard.edu>
Subject   st: xtregar coefficients changes sign from random effects to fixed effects
Date   Fri, 25 Feb 2011 16:05:08 -0500

Hi,
I am estimating two models: one with random effects GLS with AR(1) [model 1] and subsequently, with fixed effects AR(1) [model 2]. My coefficient of interest "lag12wq" changes sign from positive in the RE model to negative in the FE specification.

I also tried running the models excluding all time invariant variables and the RE and FE results on "lag12wq" are still opposite in sign (as seen in models 3 and 4). Any ideas on possible ways to address this would be extremely helpful. I also tried estimating the model with xtpcse (model 5) and xtgls (model 6) with plant level dummy variables, so that the specification would be equivalent to panel data fixed effects estimation technique, and the coefficient on "lag12wq" is positive in both xtpcse and xtgls models.
thanks
Lopa

-----------------------------------------------------
model 1:

. xtregar lrelperf  lag12wq winter1 spring1 fall1  lagcumanninspall avgflowfoia04avg  elec food mill paper chem petro rubber leather metal transp secu just rnwhite mhhi carpl manuf popt popu  MD PA

RE GLS regression with AR(1) disturbances       Number of obs      =      8163
Group variable (i): npid                        Number of groups   =        80

R-sq:  within  = 0.0343                         Obs per group: min =         3
       between = 0.3034                                        avg =     102.0
       overall = 0.1557                                        max =       154

                                                Wald chi2(27)      =    167.37
corr(u_i, Xb)      = 0 (assumed)                Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

------------------- theta --------------------
  min      5%       median        95%      max
0.3190   0.6585     0.7643     0.7688   0.7688

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    lrelperf |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
     lag12wq |   .0141472   .0035122     4.03   0.000     .0072635    .0210308
     winter1 |    .149197   .0201986     7.39   0.000     .1096085    .1887856
     spring1 |   .0886719   .0158742     5.59   0.000      .057559    .1197848
       fall1 |   .0268245   .0164371     1.63   0.103    -.0053916    .0590406
lagcuma~pall |   .0016151   .0051839     0.31   0.755    -.0085451    .0117754
avgflowfoi~g |  -.0000913   .0003014    -0.30   0.762     -.000682    .0004994
        elec |  -.2095709   .3305005    -0.63   0.526    -.8573401    .4381982
        food |  -.2353497   .5764013    -0.41   0.683    -1.365075    .8943762
        mill |  -.1530125   .3794667    -0.40   0.687    -.8967536    .5907285
       paper |   .6106899   .3388402     1.80   0.071    -.0534248    1.274805
        chem |  -.6603529   .2967584    -2.23   0.026    -1.241989   -.0787171
       petro |  -.8237519   .4182874    -1.97   0.049     -1.64358   -.0039238
      rubber |   .5988557   .5270429     1.14   0.256    -.4341294    1.631841
     leather |   .2757821   .3947056     0.70   0.485    -.4978267    1.049391
       metal |  -.5314561   .5749752    -0.92   0.355    -1.658387    .5954745
      transp |  -.7606925   .5895897    -1.29   0.197    -1.916267    .3948822
        secu |  -.1748021   .3694766    -0.47   0.636    -.8989629    .5493587
        just |  -.6909059    .528037    -1.31   0.191    -1.725839    .3440276
     rnwhite |  -.0023016   .0043443    -0.53   0.596    -.0108163     .006213
        mhhi |   -.014925   .0080387    -1.86   0.063    -.0306807    .0008306
       carpl |  -.0001081   .0143632    -0.01   0.994    -.0282595    .0280434
       manuf |  -.0004748   .0063831    -0.07   0.941    -.0129854    .0120358
        popt |   .0032765   .0053295     0.61   0.539    -.0071692    .0137222
        popu |   .0004706   .0019899     0.24   0.813    -.0034296    .0043707
          MD |  -.1055311   .1734139    -0.61   0.543    -.4454162    .2343539
          PA |  -.0072147   .2400375    -0.03   0.976    -.4776796    .4632502
       _cons |  -1.157334   .3855263    -3.00   0.003    -1.912952   -.4017165
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
      rho_ar |  .70477176   (estimated autocorrelation coefficient)
     sigma_u |  .47767143
     sigma_e |  .42483705
     rho_fov |  .55834175   (fraction of variance due to u_i)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------


model 2:

. xtregar lrelperf  lag12wq winter1 spring1 fall1  lagcumanninspall avgflowfoia04avg  elec food mill paper chem petro rubber leather metal transp secu just rnwhite mhhi carpl manuf popt popu  MD PA ,fe
note: avgflowfoia04avg dropped due to collinearity
note: elec dropped due to collinearity
note: food dropped due to collinearity
note: mill dropped due to collinearity
note: paper dropped due to collinearity
note: chem dropped due to collinearity
note: petro dropped due to collinearity
note: rubber dropped due to collinearity
note: leather dropped due to collinearity
note: metal dropped due to collinearity
note: transp dropped due to collinearity
note: secu dropped due to collinearity
note: just dropped due to collinearity
note: rnwhite dropped due to collinearity
note: mhhi dropped due to collinearity
note: carpl dropped due to collinearity
note: manuf dropped due to collinearity
note: popt dropped due to collinearity
note: popu dropped due to collinearity
note: MD dropped due to collinearity
note: PA dropped due to collinearity

FE (within) regression with AR(1) disturbances  Number of obs      =      8083
Group variable (i): npid                        Number of groups   =        80

R-sq:  within  = 0.0097                         Obs per group: min =         2
       between = 0.0836                                        avg =     101.0
       overall = 0.0001                                        max =       153

                                                F(5,7998)          =     15.69
corr(u_i, Xb)  = -0.1528                        Prob > F           =    0.0000

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    lrelperf |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
     lag12wq |  -.0084278   .0034388    -2.45   0.014    -.0151687    -.001687
     winter1 |   .1581392   .0207608     7.62   0.000     .1174427    .1988357
     spring1 |   .0762701   .0162704     4.69   0.000     .0443757    .1081644
       fall1 |   .0318118   .0168552     1.89   0.059    -.0012288    .0648525
lagcuma~pall |  -.0163209   .0054208    -3.01   0.003    -.0269471   -.0056948
       _cons |  -1.533464    .011778  -130.20   0.000    -1.556552   -1.510376
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
      rho_ar |  .70477176
     sigma_u |  .62725999
     sigma_e |  .43568704
     rho_fov |  .67455811   (fraction of variance due to u_i)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
F test that all u_i=0:     F(79,7998) =    13.07             Prob > F = 0.0000



model 3:

. xtregar lrelperf  lag12wq winter1 spring1 fall1  lagcumanninspall

RE GLS regression with AR(1) disturbances       Number of obs      =      8180
Group variable (i): npid                        Number of groups   =        81

R-sq:  within  = 0.0343                         Obs per group: min =         3
       between = 0.0784                                        avg =     101.0
       overall = 0.0314                                        max =       154

                                                Wald chi2(6)       =    135.53
corr(u_i, Xb)      = 0 (assumed)                Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

------------------- theta --------------------
  min      5%       median        95%      max
0.3771   0.7020     0.7967     0.8006   0.8006

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    lrelperf |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
     lag12wq |    .014308   .0035052     4.08   0.000      .007438     .021178
     winter1 |   .1485651   .0201543     7.37   0.000     .1090633    .1880668
     spring1 |   .0880406   .0158354     5.56   0.000     .0570038    .1190774
       fall1 |   .0276031   .0164028     1.68   0.092    -.0045459     .059752
lagcuma~pall |   .0024718   .0051515     0.48   0.631    -.0076249    .0125685
       _cons |  -1.705453   .0733925   -23.24   0.000    -1.849299   -1.561606
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
      rho_ar |  .70465009   (estimated autocorrelation coefficient)
     sigma_u |  .55817473
     sigma_e |  .42515716
     rho_fov |  .63284149   (fraction of variance due to u_i)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------


model 4:

. xtregar lrelperf  lag12wq winter1 spring1 fall1  lagcumanninspall ,fe

FE (within) regression with AR(1) disturbances  Number of obs      =      8099
Group variable (i): npid                        Number of groups   =        81

R-sq:  within  = 0.0097                         Obs per group: min =         2
       between = 0.0804                                        avg =     100.0
       overall = 0.0001                                        max =       153

                                                F(5,8013)          =     15.63
corr(u_i, Xb)  = -0.1507                        Prob > F           =    0.0000

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    lrelperf |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
     lag12wq |   -.008277   .0034351    -2.41   0.016    -.0150107   -.0015432
     winter1 |   .1578992   .0207393     7.61   0.000     .1172449    .1985536
     spring1 |   .0756421   .0162466     4.66   0.000     .0437946    .1074896
       fall1 |   .0325179   .0168376     1.93   0.053    -.0004882    .0655241
lagcuma~pall |  -.0163736   .0054185    -3.02   0.003    -.0269952    -.005752
       _cons |  -1.532985   .0117672  -130.28   0.000    -1.556052   -1.509919
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
      rho_ar |  .70465009
     sigma_u |  .62923613
     sigma_e |  .43561489
     rho_fov |  .67601017   (fraction of variance due to u_i)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
F test that all u_i=0:     F(80,8013) =    13.06             Prob > F = 0.0000


model 5:

. xtpcse lrelperf  lag12wq winter1 spring1 fall1  lagcumanninspall avgflowfoia04avg  elec food mill paper chem petro rubber leather metal transp secu just rnwhite mhhi carpl manuf popt popu  MD PA plantdum*,hetonly corr(ar1)

Number of gaps in sample:  863
(note: computations for rho restarted at each gap)
(note: estimates of rho outside [-1,1] bounded to be in the range [-1,1])

Prais-Winsten regression, heteroskedastic panels corrected standard errors

Group variable:   npid                          Number of obs      =      8163
Time variable:    month                         Number of groups   =        80
Panels:           heteroskedastic (unbalanced)  Obs per group: min =         3
Autocorrelation:  common AR(1)                                 avg =  102.0375
                                                               max =       154
Estimated covariances      =        80          R-squared          =    0.3949
Estimated autocorrelations =         1          Wald chi2(84)      =   5962.92
Estimated coefficients     =        85          Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             |            Het-corrected
             |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
     lag12wq |   .0134474    .003583     3.75   0.000     .0064248    .0204701
     winter1 |   .1669976   .0211298     7.90   0.000     .1255839    .2084112
     spring1 |   .1008285   .0164217     6.14   0.000     .0686425    .1330144
       fall1 |   .0347714   .0171432     2.03   0.043     .0011713    .0683715
lagcumanni~l |   .0012971   .0042551     0.30   0.760    -.0070427    .0096369
avgflowfoi~g |  -.0003989   .0001245    -3.20   0.001    -.0006428   -.0001549
        elec |   .6681681   .2447255     2.73   0.006      .188515    1.147821
        food |  (dropped)
        mill |   1.453107   .2411846     6.02   0.000     .9803943     1.92582
       paper |   1.497366   .2782159     5.38   0.000     .9520732     2.04266
        chem |    -1.3421   .2147154    -6.25   0.000    -1.762934   -.9212654
       petro |  -.5611251   .1868011    -3.00   0.003    -.9272486   -.1950017
      rubber |  (dropped)
     leather |   1.249428   .1991099     6.28   0.000     .8591797    1.639676
       metal |  (dropped)
      transp |  (dropped)
        secu |   1.304594   .2284981     5.71   0.000     .8567464    1.752442
        just |    1.25115   .2246428     5.57   0.000     .8108586    1.691442
     rnwhite |  -.0006209   .0021306    -0.29   0.771    -.0047969     .003555
        mhhi |   .0131542   .0040855     3.22   0.001     .0051469    .0211616
       carpl |  -.0271956   .0087757    -3.10   0.002    -.0443956   -.0099955
       manuf |  -.0171055   .0050153    -3.41   0.001    -.0269353   -.0072757
        popt |  -.0086306   .0044136    -1.96   0.051     -.017281    .0000199
        popu |   .0046696   .0009763     4.78   0.000     .0027561    .0065831
          MD |  -1.405418    .173211    -8.11   0.000    -1.744905   -1.065931
          PA |  -.0325762   .1780428    -0.18   0.855    -.3815338    .3163813
   plantdum1 |  (dropped)
   plantdum2 |  (dropped)
   plantdum3 |  (dropped)
   plantdum4 |   1.009083   .2062251     4.89   0.000     .6048888    1.413277
   plantdum5 |   1.007713   .1626233     6.20   0.000     .6889775    1.326449
   plantdum6 |   1.632687   .2480083     6.58   0.000       1.1466    2.118774
   plantdum7 |  (dropped)
   plantdum8 |    2.46891   .2152443    11.47   0.000     2.047039    2.890781
   plantdum9 |   1.495201   .2360294     6.33   0.000     1.032592    1.957811
  plantdum10 |   .7744759    .221468     3.50   0.000     .3404065    1.208545
  plantdum11 |   2.256052   .2200483    10.25   0.000     1.824766    2.687339
  plantdum12 |  -.1333615   .1505045    -0.89   0.376    -.4283449    .1616218
  plantdum13 |  (dropped)
  plantdum14 |   1.091241   .2704721     4.03   0.000     .5611256    1.621357
  plantdum15 |   1.815395   .2138639     8.49   0.000     1.396229     2.23456
  plantdum16 |   2.237856   .1857288    12.05   0.000     1.873834    2.601877
  plantdum17 |   .2873254   .1807535     1.59   0.112    -.0669449    .6415957
  plantdum18 |   1.986368   .2603916     7.63   0.000      1.47601    2.496726
  plantdum19 |   .4462251   .1659323     2.69   0.007     .1210037    .7714464
  plantdum20 |   2.030048   .2316667     8.76   0.000      1.57599    2.484107
  plantdum21 |     1.8998   .1793525    10.59   0.000     1.548275    2.251324
  plantdum22 |   .9419551   .2313572     4.07   0.000     .4885033    1.395407
  plantdum23 |  (dropped)
  plantdum24 |  (dropped)
  plantdum25 |  -.2066739   .2032261    -1.02   0.309    -.6049896    .1916419
  plantdum26 |   1.419868   .2247428     6.32   0.000     .9793799    1.860356
  plantdum27 |  (dropped)
  plantdum28 |  (dropped)
  plantdum29 |  (dropped)
  plantdum30 |  (dropped)
  plantdum31 |   1.728486   .1075923    16.07   0.000     1.517609    1.939363
  plantdum32 |  (dropped)
  plantdum33 |  (dropped)
  plantdum34 |  (dropped)
  plantdum35 |  -.5571721   .2243638    -2.48   0.013    -.9969171   -.1174271
  plantdum36 |  (dropped)
  plantdum37 |  (dropped)
  plantdum38 |  (dropped)
  plantdum39 |  (dropped)
  plantdum40 |  (dropped)
  plantdum41 |  (dropped)
  plantdum42 |  (dropped)
  plantdum43 |    1.10406   .1387089     7.96   0.000     .8321955    1.375924
  plantdum44 |   .5942929   .1860721     3.19   0.001     .2295983    .9589875
  plantdum45 |   .5678354   .2315731     2.45   0.014     .1139604     1.02171
  plantdum46 |   .3704836   .2204484     1.68   0.093    -.0615873    .8025546
  plantdum47 |   .5660245   .2668357     2.12   0.034     .0430361    1.089013
  plantdum48 |  (dropped)
  plantdum49 |    1.39091   .1914441     7.27   0.000     1.015687    1.766134
  plantdum50 |  (dropped)
  plantdum51 |  (dropped)
  plantdum52 |  (dropped)
  plantdum53 |  (dropped)
  plantdum54 |  (dropped)
  plantdum55 |  (dropped)
  plantdum56 |  (dropped)
  plantdum57 |   .2266481   .2168931     1.04   0.296    -.1984545    .6517508
  plantdum58 |   .6364706   .1741251     3.66   0.000     .2951917    .9777495
  plantdum59 |  -.5024625   .2072787    -2.42   0.015    -.9087214   -.0962036
  plantdum60 |  (dropped)
  plantdum61 |  (dropped)
  plantdum62 |  -1.206743    .189846    -6.36   0.000    -1.578834   -.8346515
  plantdum63 |  (dropped)
  plantdum64 |  (dropped)
  plantdum65 |    .231714   .1426188     1.62   0.104    -.0478138    .5112418
  plantdum66 |    1.81752    .222601     8.16   0.000      1.38123     2.25381
  plantdum67 |   1.008346   .1724313     5.85   0.000     .6703867    1.346305
  plantdum68 |    .288573   .2559256     1.13   0.260     -.213032     .790178
  plantdum69 |  (dropped)
  plantdum70 |   1.771655   .1542389    11.49   0.000     1.469353    2.073958
  plantdum71 |  (dropped)
  plantdum72 |   1.525464   .1182537    12.90   0.000     1.293691    1.757237
  plantdum73 |   1.402835   .1719983     8.16   0.000     1.065725    1.739946
  plantdum74 |    1.54461    .109487    14.11   0.000      1.33002    1.759201
  plantdum75 |  -.8715778   .2017337    -4.32   0.000    -1.266968   -.4761871
  plantdum76 |   .9058232   .1399289     6.47   0.000     .6315676    1.180079
  plantdum77 |   .3503663     .18195     1.93   0.054     -.006249    .7069817
  plantdum78 |   .6130572   .1375284     4.46   0.000     .3435065    .8826078
  plantdum79 |  (dropped)
  plantdum80 |  (dropped)
  plantdum81 |   1.471197   .1219541    12.06   0.000     1.232171    1.710223
  plantdum82 |   .2497718     .15598     1.60   0.109    -.0559433     .555487
  plantdum83 |   .5653796    .259789     2.18   0.030     .0562026    1.074557
  plantdum84 |  -.0153253   .1485055    -0.10   0.918    -.3063907    .2757401
  plantdum85 |   1.595793   .1912069     8.35   0.000     1.221034    1.970551
  plantdum86 |   .6776431   .1926063     3.52   0.000     .3001416    1.055145
  plantdum87 |   .1427184   .1619141     0.88   0.378    -.1746275    .4600642
  plantdum88 |  -.3633799    .122882    -2.96   0.003    -.6042242   -.1225357
  plantdum89 |   1.291798   .2587024     4.99   0.000     .7847501    1.798845
  plantdum90 |   1.018558   .1427049     7.14   0.000      .738862    1.298255
  plantdum91 |   .2886043    .217623     1.33   0.185    -.1379288    .7151375
  plantdum92 |   1.037848   .1741697     5.96   0.000     .6964822    1.379215
  plantdum93 |   .5967572   .1251768     4.77   0.000     .3514152    .8420992
  plantdum94 |   .5958707   .2442355     2.44   0.015      .117178    1.074563
  plantdum95 |   1.674297   .1852127     9.04   0.000     1.311286    2.037307
  plantdum96 |   .3991236   .2340883     1.71   0.088     -.059681    .8579282
  plantdum97 |  -.8368235    .138318    -6.05   0.000    -1.107922   -.5657252
  plantdum98 |  -.3260959   .1649704    -1.98   0.048    -.6494318   -.0027599
  plantdum99 |  (dropped)
 plantdum100 |   .4740158   .1780818     2.66   0.008     .1249819    .8230496
       _cons |  -1.599313   .1977145    -8.09   0.000    -1.986826     -1.2118
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
         rho |   .6038861
------------------------------------------------------------------------------


model 6:

. xtgls lrelperf  lag12wq winter1 spring1 fall1  lagcumanninspall avgflowfoia04avg  elec food mill paper chem petro rubber leather metal transp secu just rnwhite mhhi carpl manuf popt popu  MD PA plantdum*,panels(heteroskedastic) corr(ar1) force
note: metal dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum2 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum4 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum7 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum12 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum15 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum23 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum24 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum27 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum28 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum33 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum34 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum36 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum39 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum41 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum45 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum52 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum55 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum56 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum58 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum60 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum61 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum63 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum64 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum69 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum71 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum79 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum99 dropped due to collinearity
note: plantdum100 dropped due to collinearity

Cross-sectional time-series FGLS regression

Coefficients:  generalized least squares
Panels:        heteroskedastic
Correlation:   common AR(1) coefficient for all panels  (0.5737)

Estimated covariances      =        80          Number of obs      =      8163
Estimated autocorrelations =         1          Number of groups   =        80
Estimated coefficients     =        98          Obs per group: min =         3
                                                               avg =  102.0375
                                                               max =       154
                                                Wald chi2(84)      =   4763.57
Log likelihood             = -4134.856          Prob > chi2        =    0.0000

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    lrelperf |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
     lag12wq |   .0164231   .0029618     5.54   0.000      .010618    .0222282
     winter1 |   .1542364   .0172601     8.94   0.000     .1204072    .1880656
     spring1 |    .087038   .0131711     6.61   0.000     .0612232    .1128527
       fall1 |   .0348722   .0139406     2.50   0.012     .0075492    .0621952
lagcuma~pall |   .0026145   .0036413     0.72   0.473    -.0045223    .0097514
avgflowfoi~g |  -.0003306   .0001186    -2.79   0.005    -.0005631   -.0000981
        elec |   .1918242   .2857926     0.67   0.502     -.368319    .7519674
        food |  -.6246996   .2195314    -2.85   0.004    -1.054973    -.194426
        mill |   .0595123   .1973221     0.30   0.763    -.3272318    .4462565
       paper |    1.68358   .1573055    10.70   0.000     1.375267    1.991893
        chem |  -2.551892   .3352243    -7.61   0.000     -3.20892   -1.894865
       petro |  -2.569892   .3006177    -8.55   0.000    -3.159092   -1.980692
      rubber |   .4386065   .2042041     2.15   0.032     .0383738    .8388392
     leather |   .1026688    .187899     0.55   0.585    -.2656064     .470944
      transp |  -1.875322   .2981434    -6.29   0.000    -2.459673   -1.290972
        secu |  -.4765381   .1364668    -3.49   0.000    -.7440083    -.209068
        just |  -.7629631   .1167812    -6.53   0.000      -.99185   -.5340762
     rnwhite |   .0078994    .003364     2.35   0.019      .001306    .0144927
        mhhi |   .0152045   .0059121     2.57   0.010      .003617     .026792
       carpl |  -.0453953   .0107003    -4.24   0.000    -.0663675   -.0244231
       manuf |   -.011716   .0045508    -2.57   0.010    -.0206354   -.0027967
        popt |   .0157823   .0041328     3.82   0.000     .0076821    .0238825
        popu |  -.0019144   .0016912    -1.13   0.258    -.0052291    .0014003
          MD |  -.0472041   .1386719    -0.34   0.734    -.3189961    .2245878
          PA |    1.06404   .1625332     6.55   0.000     .7454812      1.3826
   plantdum1 |  (dropped)
   plantdum3 |  -1.114957   .2260537    -4.93   0.000    -1.558014      -.6719
   plantdum5 |  -.1520598   .1810658    -0.84   0.401    -.5069423    .2028226
   plantdum6 |   .2282093   .2839113     0.80   0.422    -.3282467    .7846653
   plantdum8 |   .5911291   .2571891     2.30   0.022     .0870477    1.095211
   plantdum9 |  -.2509141   .3037379    -0.83   0.409    -.8462295    .3444013
  plantdum10 |   -.646034    .244283    -2.64   0.008     -1.12482   -.1672481
  plantdum11 |   .3835525   .1943971     1.97   0.048     .0025411    .7645638
  plantdum13 |   .1692659   .1674129     1.01   0.312    -.1588575    .4973892
  plantdum14 |  -.2233539   .2780481    -0.80   0.422    -.7683182    .3216104
  plantdum16 |    .529988   .1254784     4.22   0.000     .2840549    .7759211
  plantdum17 |  -1.063285   .2377738    -4.47   0.000    -1.529313   -.5972568
  plantdum18 |   .0193775   .2447829     0.08   0.937    -.4603881    .4991431
  plantdum19 |  -1.097648   .1909046    -5.75   0.000    -1.471814    -.723482
  plantdum20 |   -.019782   .1310067    -0.15   0.880    -.2765504    .2369863
  plantdum21 |   .1760348   .1172011     1.50   0.133    -.0536751    .4057447
  plantdum22 |    -.80826   .2911891    -2.78   0.006     -1.37898     -.23754
  plantdum25 |  -1.221849   .2104119    -5.81   0.000    -1.634249   -.8094493
  plantdum26 |    -.30172   .1092247    -2.76   0.006    -.5157965   -.0876436
  plantdum29 |  (dropped)
  plantdum30 |   .7144827   .3218376     2.22   0.026     .0836925    1.345273
  plantdum31 |   2.135903   .2836367     7.53   0.000     1.579985    2.691821
  plantdum32 |  (dropped)
  plantdum35 |  -1.245616   .2363109    -5.27   0.000    -1.708776   -.7824548
  plantdum37 |  -1.792411   .3131689    -5.72   0.000    -2.406211   -1.178611
  plantdum38 |  (dropped)
  plantdum40 |  (dropped)
  plantdum42 |    1.06257   .3517521     3.02   0.003     .3731484    1.751991
  plantdum43 |   1.144363   .3117992     3.67   0.000     .5332479    1.755478
  plantdum44 |  -.5627415   .1357237    -4.15   0.000     -.828755   -.2967279
  plantdum46 |  -1.594686   .2992008    -5.33   0.000    -2.181108   -1.008263
  plantdum47 |  (dropped)
  plantdum48 |  (dropped)
  plantdum49 |   2.880911   .3399052     8.48   0.000     2.214709    3.547113
  plantdum50 |  (dropped)
  plantdum51 |   1.095941    .205735     5.33   0.000     .6927079    1.499174
  plantdum53 |  (dropped)
  plantdum54 |  (dropped)
  plantdum57 |  (dropped)
  plantdum59 |  -.9802196   .1810202    -5.41   0.000    -1.335013   -.6254265
  plantdum62 |  (dropped)
  plantdum65 |  -.0788745   .1606485    -0.49   0.623    -.3937398    .2359907
  plantdum66 |   1.228209   .2416354     5.08   0.000      .754612    1.701805
  plantdum67 |   .4503962   .1808964     2.49   0.013     .0958458    .8049467
  plantdum68 |   .1341702   .2273272     0.59   0.555    -.3113829    .5797233
  plantdum70 |   1.688615   .1267516    13.32   0.000     1.440187    1.937044
  plantdum72 |   1.230899   .1433639     8.59   0.000     .9499107    1.511887
  plantdum73 |   1.029702   .1890332     5.45   0.000     .6592035      1.4002
  plantdum74 |   1.366744   .1293571    10.57   0.000     1.113208    1.620279
  plantdum75 |  -1.363135   .2493146    -5.47   0.000    -1.851783   -.8744871
  plantdum76 |   .8968488   .1564736     5.73   0.000     .5901661    1.203531
  plantdum77 |   .4593524   .2056716     2.23   0.026     .0562435    .8624612
  plantdum78 |   .3530433   .1696471     2.08   0.037     .0205411    .6855455
  plantdum80 |  (dropped)
  plantdum81 |   1.017455   .1668805     6.10   0.000     .6903751    1.344534
  plantdum82 |  -.1008502    .187539    -0.54   0.591    -.4684199    .2667195
  plantdum83 |    .142818   .2366037     0.60   0.546    -.3209167    .6065527
  plantdum84 |  -.1999986   .1412578    -1.42   0.157    -.4768588    .0768617
  plantdum85 |   1.206034   .1864733     6.47   0.000     .8405534    1.571515
  plantdum86 |  -.3969242   .1673756    -2.37   0.018    -.7249744    -.068874
  plantdum87 |  -.5792465   .2063684    -2.81   0.005    -.9837212   -.1747718
  plantdum88 |  -.9187003   .1583101    -5.80   0.000    -1.228982   -.6084181
  plantdum89 |   1.061002   .2151751     4.93   0.000     .6392668    1.482738
  plantdum90 |   .5136376   .1414326     3.63   0.000     .2364348    .7908403
  plantdum91 |   .2741884   .2481585     1.10   0.269    -.2121933    .7605701
  plantdum92 |   .7815719    .155325     5.03   0.000     .4771404    1.086003
  plantdum93 |   .2677665   .1403431     1.91   0.056    -.0073008    .5428339
  plantdum94 |   .5607723   .2338148     2.40   0.016     .1025038    1.019041
  plantdum95 |   1.526727   .1463089    10.43   0.000     1.239967    1.813488
  plantdum96 |  -.8053001   .2079401    -3.87   0.000    -1.212855    -.397745
  plantdum97 |  -.5661222   .1555016    -3.64   0.000    -.8708996   -.2613447
  plantdum98 |   .0282695   .1782581     0.16   0.874    -.3211099    .3776489
       _cons |  -1.577368   .2166839    -7.28   0.000     -2.00206   -1.152675
------------------------------------------------------------------------------



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