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Re: st: Harman's single-factor test in Stata

From   John Antonakis <>
Subject   Re: st: Harman's single-factor test in Stata
Date   Fri, 13 Apr 2012 17:52:47 +0200

Hi Michele:

I would strongly advise you to not conduct such a test--thus, your Stata question is not really of issue.

Common-method variance bias is a kind of omitted variable problem that creates endogeneity. The problem you have is that you don't know how this omitted variable affects the other variables in the model. The Harman approach has been shown to not recover true model parameters:

Richardson, H. A., Simmering, M. J., & Sturman, M. C. (2009). A Tale of Three Perspectives: Examining Post Hoc Statistical Techniques for Detection and Correction of Common Method Variance. Organizational Research Methods, 12(4), 762-800.

Antonakis, J., Bendahan, S., Jacquart, P., & Lalive, R. (2010). On making causal claims: A review and recommendations. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(6), 1086-1120. (this paper also shows how endogeneity creates bias and that only instruments can help you).

Only a design that eliminates common-method variance, or instrumental variables, can save the day. The latter are hard to come by but if you have them then you can purge the model from the endogeneity bias. See also:

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of Method Bias in Social Science Research and Recommendations on How to Control It. Annual Review of Psychology, 63(1), 539-569.



Prof. John Antonakis
Faculty of Business and Economics
Department of Organizational Behavior
University of Lausanne
Internef #618
CH-1015 Lausanne-Dorigny
Tel ++41 (0)21 692-3438
Fax ++41 (0)21 692-3305

Associate Editor
The Leadership Quarterly

On 13.04.2012 17:35, Bernini, Michele wrote:
Dear Statalister,

I am trying to perform an Harman's single-factor test with stata to check for Common Method Variance. However I am not sure which method should I use when I do Factor Analysis with Stata. For example Principal factor confirms the presence of CMV while Principal-Component factor rejects it.

Thanks for your help!

Michele Bernini
Phd Candidate
School of International Studies (SIS)
University of Trento
Via Verdi, 8/10
I-38122 Trento

Tel. +39 3491831687

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