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Re: st: Book on Propensity Scores

From   Michael McCulloch <>
Subject   Re: st: Book on Propensity Scores
Date   Sat, 25 Sep 2010 10:13:01 -0700

Many Statalist members have asked for my Propensity Score bibliography. Stas Kolenikov has kindly offered to post the bibliography in Endnote format on his webpage ( ).

For those of you not using Endnote (, it's a fabulous bibliography program, which allows the user to link any citation to its PUBMED page with one keystroke, where you can obtain full-text copies.

Or, you can simply browse the plain-text list which is copied here below, 165 citations beginning with Rosenbaum & Rubin's seminal 1983 publication, which is still one of the best tutorials for those interested in learning this method.

Rosenbaum, P. R. and D. B. Rubin (1983). "The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects." Biometrika 70(1): 41-55. Rosenbaum, P. R. and D. B. Rubin (1984). "Reducing bias in observational studies using subclassification on the propensity score." Journal of the American Statistical Association 79(387): 516-524. Rosenbaum, P. R. and D. B. Rubin (1985). "Constructing a control group using multivariate matched sampling methods that incorporate the propensity score." Am Stat 39(1): 33-38. Rubin, D. B. and N. Thomas (1996). "Matching using estimated propensity scores: relating theory to practice." Biometrics 52(1): 249-264. Rubin, D. B. (1997). "Estimating causal effects from large data sets using propensity scores." Ann Intern Med 127(8 Pt 2): 757-763. D'Agostino, R. B., Jr. (1998). "Propensity score methods for bias reduction in the comparison of a treatment to a non-randomized control group." Stat Med 17(19): 2265-2281. Rosenbaum, P. R. (1998). Propensity score. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics. T. Colson and P. Armitage. New York, Wiley. 5: 3551-3555. Joffe, M. M. and P. R. Rosenbaum (1999). "Invited commentary: propensity scores." Am J Epidemiol 150(4): 327-333. Rubin, D. B. and N. Thomas (2000). "Combining propensity score matching with additional adjustments for prognostic covariates." Journal of the American Statistical Association 95(450): 573-585. Normand, S. T., M. B. Landrum, et al. (2001). "Validating recommendations for coronary angiography following acute myocardial infarction in the elderly: a matched analysis using propensity scores." J Clin Epidemiol 54(4): 387-398. Sianesi, B. (2001). Implementing Propensity Score Matching Estimators with STATA. UK Stata Users Group, VII Meeting, University College London and Institute for Fiscal Studies, London. Becker, S. O. and A. Ichino (2002). "Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores." The Stata Journal 2(4): 358-377. Braitman, L. E. and P. R. Rosenbaum (2002). "Rare outcomes, common treatments: analytic strategies using propensity scores." Ann Intern Med 137(8): 693-695. Cepeda, M. S., R. Boston, et al. (2003). "Comparison of logistic regression versus propensity score when the number of events is low and there are multiple confounders." Am J Epidemiol 158(3): 280-287. Foster, E. M. (2003). "Propensity score matching: an illustrative analysis of dose response." Med Care 41(10): 1183-1192. Leuven, E. and B. Sianesi (2003). PSMATCH2: Stata module to perform full Mahalanobis and propensity score matching, common support graphing, and covariate imbalance testing". . This version 3.0.0. Polkinghorne, K. R., S. P. McDonald, et al. (2004). "Vascular access and all-cause mortality: a propensity score analysis." J Am Soc Nephrol 15(2): 477-486. Weitzen, S., K. L. Lapane, et al. (2004). "Principles for modeling propensity scores in medical research: a systematic literature review." Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 13(12): 841-853. Ahmed, A., R. M. Centor, et al. (2005). "A propensity score analysis of the impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on long-term survival of older adults with heart failure and perceived contraindications." Am Heart J 149(4): 737-743. Caliendo, M. and S. Kopeinig (2005). "Some Practical Guidance for the Implementation of Propensity Score Matching." IZA Discussion Paper Series(1588): 1-32. Hodges, K. and H. Grunwald (2005). "The use of propensity scores to evaluate outcomes for community clinics: identification of an exceptional home-based program." J Behav Health Serv Res 32(3): 294-305. Seeger, J. D., P. L. Williams, et al. (2005). "An application of propensity score matching using claims data." Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 14(7): 465-476. Shah, B. R., A. Laupacis, et al. (2005). "Propensity score methods gave similar results to traditional regression modeling in observational studies: a systematic review." J Clin Epidemiol 58(6): 550-559. Sturmer, T., S. Schneeweiss, et al. (2005). "Adjusting effect estimates for unmeasured confounding with validation data using propensity score calibration." Am J Epidemiol 162(3): 279-289. Sturmer, T., S. Schneeweiss, et al. (2005). "Analytic strategies to adjust confounding using exposure propensity scores and disease risk scores: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and short-term mortality in the elderly." Am J Epidemiol 161(9): 891-898. Weitzen, S., K. L. Lapane, et al. (2005). "Weaknesses of goodness-of- fit tests for evaluating propensity score models: the case of the omitted confounder." Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 14(4): 227-238. Baser, O. (2006). "Too Much Ado about Propensity Score Models? Comparing Methods of Propensity Score Matching." Value in Health 9(6): 377-385. Brookhart, M. A., S. Schneeweiss, et al. (2006). "Variable selection for propensity score models." Am J Epidemiol 163(12): 1149-1156. Freburger, J. K., T. S. Carey, et al. (2006). "Effectiveness of Physical Therapy for the Management of Chronic Spine Disorders: A Propensity Score Approach." PHYS THER 86(3): 381-394. Guo, S. Y., R. P. Barth, et al. (2006). "Substance abuse treatment and the recurrence of maltreatment among caregivers with children living at home: a propensity score analysis." J Subst Abuse Treat 30(2): 93-104. Milton, R. C., R. D. Sperduto, et al. (2006). "Centrum use and progression of age-related cataract in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study: a propensity score approach. AREDS report No. 21." Ophthalmology 113(8): 1264-1270. Milton, R. C., R. D. Sperduto, et al. (2006). "Centrum use and progression of age-related cataract in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study: a propensity score approach. AREDS report No. 21." Ophthalmology 113(8): 1264-1270. Milton, R. C., R. D. Sperduto, et al. (2006). "Centrum use and progression of age-related cataract in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study: a propensity score approach. AREDS report No. 21." Ophthalmology 113(8): 1264-1270. Sturmer, T., M. Joshi, et al. (2006). "A review of the application of propensity score methods yielded increasing use, advantages in specific settings, but not substantially different estimates compared with conventional multivariable methods." J Clin Epidemiol 59(5): 437-447. Austin, P. C., P. Grootendorst, et al. (2007). "A comparison of the ability of different propensity score models to balance measured variables between treated and untreated subjects: a Monte Carlo study." Stat Med 26(4): 734-753. Austin, P. C., P. Grootendorst, et al. (2007). "Conditioning on the propensity score can result in biased estimation of common measures of treatment effect: a Monte Carlo study." Stat Med 26(4): 754-768. Mansson, R., M. M. Joffe, et al. (2007). "On the Estimation and Use of Propensity Scores in Case-Control and Case-Cohort Studies." Am J Epidemiol. Stukel, T. A., E. S. Fisher, et al. (2007). "Analysis of observational studies in the presence of treatment selection bias: effects of invasive cardiac management on AMI survival using propensity score and instrumental variable methods." Jama 297(3): 278-285. Sturmer, T., S. Schneeweiss, et al. (2007). "Performance of propensity score calibration--a simulation study." Am J Epidemiol 165(10): 1110-1118. Accola, K. D., M. L. Scott, et al. (2008). "Surgical management of aortic valve disease in the elderly: A retrospective comparative study of valve choice using propensity score analysis." J Heart Valve Dis 17(4): 355-364; discussion 365. Akazawa, M., A. K. Biddle, et al. (2008). "Economic assessment of early initiation of inhaled corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using propensity score matching." Clin Ther 30 Spec No: 1003-1016. Applegate, R. J., M. Sacrinty, et al. (2008). "Late outcomes of drug- eluting versus bare metal stents in saphenous vein grafts: Propensity score analysis." Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 72(1): 7-12. Austin, D., K. G. Oldroyd, et al. (2008). "Drug-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents for off-label indications: a propensity score- matched outcome study." Circ Cardiovasc Interv 1(1): 45-52. Austin, P. C. (2008). "Goodness-of-fit diagnostics for the propensity score model when estimating treatment effects using covariate adjustment with the propensity score." Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 17(12): 1202-1217. Carmo, C. C., R. R. Luiz, et al. (2008). "The effect of addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy in the treatment of women with cervical cancer: a survival analysis using propensity score." Gynecol Oncol 111(2): 271-275. da Veiga, P. V. and R. P. Wilder (2008). "Maternal smoking during pregnancy and birthweight: a propensity score matching approach." Matern Child Health J 12(2): 194-203. Diehm, N., G. Becker, et al. (2008). "Statins are associated with decreased mortality in abdominal, but not in thoracic aortic aneurysm patients undergoing endovascular repair: propensity score-adjusted analysis." Vasa 37(3): 241-249. Exposito Ruiz, M., M. Ruiz Bailen, et al. (2008). "[Use of the propensity score methodology in health care research]." Rev Clin Esp 208(7): 358-360. Ferreira-Gonzalez, I., G. Permanyer-Miralda, et al. (2008). "Patterns of use and effectiveness of early invasive strategy in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: an assessment by propensity score." Am Heart J 156(5): 946-953, 953 e942. Forbes, A. and S. Shortreed (2008). "Inverse probability weighted estimation of the marginal odds ratio: correspondence regarding 'The performance of different propensity score methods for estimating marginal odds ratios'." Stat Med 27(26): 5556-5559; author reply 5560-5553. Gelsomino, S., R. Lorusso, et al. (2008). "Treatment of refractory bleeding after cardiac operations with low-dose recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven): a propensity score analysis." Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 33(1): 64-71. Graf, E. and M. Schumacher (2008). "Comments on 'The performance of different propensity score methods for estimating marginal odds ratios'." Stat Med 27(19): 3915-3917; author reply 3918-3920. Hafez, J., F. Wrba, et al. (2008). "Fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux and factors associated with the outcome 6 to 10 years after the operation: multivariate analysis of prognostic factors using the propensity score." Surg Endosc 22(8): 1763-1768. Harder, V. S., E. A. Stuart, et al. (2008). "Adolescent cannabis problems and young adult depression: male-female stratified propensity score analyses." Am J Epidemiol 168(6): 592-601. Haviland, A., D. S. Nagin, et al. (2008). "Combining group-based trajectory modeling and propensity score matching for causal inferences in nonexperimental longitudinal data." Dev Psychol 44(2): 422-436. Hong, G. and B. Yu (2008). "Effects of kindergarten retention on children's social-emotional development: an application of propensity score method to multivariate, multilevel data." Dev Psychol 44(2): 407-421. Kim, M. H., C. Y. Kim, et al. (2008). "Is precarious employment damaging to self-rated health? Results of propensity score matching methods, using longitudinal data in South Korea." Soc Sci Med 67(12): 1982-1994. Linden, A. and J. L. Adams (2008). "Improving participant selection in disease management programmes: insights gained from propensity score stratification." J Eval Clin Pract 14(5): 914-918. Magheli, A., S. Rais-Bahrami, et al. (2008). "Impact of body mass index on biochemical recurrence rates after radical prostatectomy: an analysis utilizing propensity score matching." Urology 72(6): 1246-1251. Mahal, A., D. Canning, et al. (2008). "Assessing the economic impact of HIV/AIDS on Nigerian households: a propensity score matching approach." AIDS 22 Suppl 1: S95-101. Martens, E. P., A. de Boer, et al. (2008). "Comparing treatment effects after adjustment with multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression and propensity score methods." Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 17(1): 1-8. Martens, E. P., W. R. Pestman, et al. (2008). "Systematic differences in treatment effect estimates between propensity score methods and logistic regression." Int J Epidemiol 37(5): 1142-1147. Ngaage, D. L., A. R. Cale, et al. (2008). "Aprotinin in primary cardiac surgery: operative outcome of propensity score-matched study." Ann Thorac Surg 86(4): 1195-1202. Qin, R., M. G. Titler, et al. (2008). "Estimating effects of nursing intervention via propensity score analysis." Nurs Res 57(6): 444-452. Reeve, B. B., A. W. Smith, et al. (2008). "Reducing bias in cancer research: application of propensity score matching." Health Care Financ Rev 29(4): 69-80. Riou Franca, L., S. Payet, et al. (2008). "Drotrecogin alfa's impact on intensive care workload in real life practice: a propensity score approach." Value Health 11(7): 1051-1060. Seshadri, R., B. M. Feldman, et al. (2008). "The role of aggressive corticosteroid therapy in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis: a propensity score analysis." Arthritis Rheum 59(7): 989-995. Setoguchi, S., S. Schneeweiss, et al. (2008). "Evaluating uses of data mining techniques in propensity score estimation: a simulation study." Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 17(6): 546-555. Slade, E. P., E. A. Stuart, et al. (2008). "Impacts of age of onset of substance use disorders on risk of adult incarceration among disadvantaged urban youth: a propensity score matching approach." Drug Alcohol Depend 95(1-2): 1-13. Smith, L. M., K. L. Lapane, et al. (2008). "Home health agency profit orientation and risk for hospitalization: a propensity score analysis of population weighted data." Home Health Care Serv Q 27(3): 240-257. Stuart, E. A. (2008). "Developing practical recommendations for the use of propensity scores: discussion of 'A critical appraisal of propensity score matching in the medical literature between 1996 and 2003' by Peter Austin, Statistics in Medicine." Stat Med 27(12): 2062-2065; discussion 2066-2069. Tleyjeh, I. M., T. Kashour, et al. (2008). "The role of valve surgery in infective endocarditis management: a systematic review of observational studies that included propensity score analysis." Am Heart J 156(5): 901-909. Vohra, H. A., T. Bahrami, et al. (2008). "Propensity score analysis of early and late outcome after redo off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting." Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 33(2): 209-214. Westfall, J. M., C. I. Kiefe, et al. (2008). "Does interhospital transfer improve outcome of acute myocardial infarction? A propensity score analysis from the Cardiovascular Cooperative Project." BMC Cardiovasc Disord 8: 22. Wu, W., S. G. West, et al. (2008). "Effect of Retention in First Grade on Children's Achievement Trajectories Over 4 Years: A Piecewise Growth Analysis Using Propensity Score Matching." J Educ Psychol 100(4): 727-740. Ahmad, M., E. H. Cole, et al. (2009). "Impact of deceased donor diabetes mellitus on kidney transplant outcomes: a propensity score- matched study." Transplantation 88(2): 251-260. Austin, P. C. (2009). "The relative ability of different propensity score methods to balance measured covariates between treated and untreated subjects in observational studies." Med Decis Making 29(6): 661-677. Bartak, A., M. D. Spreeuwenberg, et al. (2009). "The use of propensity score methods in psychotherapy research. A practical application." Psychother Psychosom 78(1): 26-34. Bockeria, L. A., K. V. Shatalov, et al. (2009). "eComment: Re: Prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump in high-risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a propensity score analysis." Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 9(2): 294-295. Calafiore, A. M., S. Gallina, et al. (2009). "Mitral valve surgery for functional mitral regurgitation: should moderate-or-more tricuspid regurgitation be treated? a propensity score analysis." Ann Thorac Surg 87(3): 698-703. Chiu, F. C., S. N. Chang, et al. (2009). "Coronary artery bypass graft surgery provides better survival in patients with acute coronary syndrome or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction experiencing cardiogenic shock after percutaneous coronary intervention: a propensity score analysis." J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 138(6): 1326-1330. Di Mauro, M., M. Contini, et al. (2009). "Bilateral internal thoracic artery on the left side: a propensity score-matched study of impact of the third conduit on the right side." J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 137(4): 869-874. Dominguez-Franco, A. J., M. F. Jimenez-Navarro, et al. (2009). "Comparison of medium-term outcomes obtained with drug-eluting stents and coronary artery bypass grafts in an unselected population of diabetic patients with multivessel coronary disease. Propensity score analysis." Rev Esp Cardiol 62(5): 491-500. Drichoutis, A. C., P. Lazaridis, et al. (2009). "Can Mediterranean diet really influence obesity? Evidence from propensity score matching." Eur J Health Econ 10(4): 371-388. Ekundayo, O. J., A. Markland, et al. (2009). "Association of diuretic use and overactive bladder syndrome in older adults: a propensity score analysis." Arch Gerontol Geriatr 49(1): 64-68. Ellis, A. R. and J. P. Morrissey (2009). "Assessing multiple outcomes for women with co-occurring disorders and trauma in a multi-site trial: a propensity score approach." Adm Policy Ment Health 36(2): 123-132. Forlani, G., C. Lorusso, et al. (2009). "Are behavioural approaches feasible and effective in the treatment of type 2 diabetes? A propensity score analysis vs. prescriptive diet." Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 19(5): 313-320. Fuller, T. and M. Nieto (2009). "Substantiation and maltreatment rereporting: a propensity score analysis." Child Maltreat 14(1): 27-37. Heckman, J. J. and P. E. Todd (2009). "A Note on Adapting Propensity Score Matching and Selection Models to Choice Based Samples." Econom J 12(1): S230-S234. Hedges, J. R., C. D. Newgard, et al. (2009). "Early neurosurgical procedures enhance survival in blunt head injury: propensity score analysis." J Emerg Med 37(2): 115-123. Li, Z. W., L. Zhang, et al. (2009). "[Application of propensity score matching in the design of an epidemiological study]." Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 30(5): 514-517. Madani, N., T. Dendane, et al. (2009). "[Effects of corticosteroids on adults with tuberculous meningitis admitted to intensive care unit: a propensity score analysis]." Rev Med Interne 30(1): 12-19. Maganti, M., V. Rao, et al. (2009). "Sex differences in resource use after on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: a propensity score-matched cohort." Can J Cardiol 25(5): e151-156. McCandless, L. C., P. Gustafson, et al. (2009). "Bayesian propensity score analysis for observational data." Stat Med 28(1): 94-112. McCandless, L. C., P. Gustafson, et al. (2009). "Covariate balance in a Bayesian propensity score analysis of beta blocker therapy in heart failure patients." Epidemiol Perspect Innov 6: 5. McCulloch, M. F., M. Broffman, et al. (2009). "Colon Cancer Survival With Herbal Medicine & Vitamins In A Whole-Systems Approach: 10-Year Follow-Up Data Analyzed With Marginal Structural Models And Propensity Score Methods. 2009.". McCulloch, M. F., M. Broffman, et al. (2009). "Lung Cancer Survival With Herbal Medicine & Vitamins In A Whole-Systems Approach: 10-Year Follow-Up Data Analyzed With Marginal Structural Models And Propensity Score Methods." Miceli, A., B. Fiorani, et al. (2009). "Prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump in high-risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a propensity score analysis." Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 9(2): 291-294. Montant, P., F. Chenot, et al. (2009). "Long-term survival in asymptomatic patients with severe degenerative mitral regurgitation: a propensity score-based comparison between an early surgical strategy and a conservative treatment approach." J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 138(6): 1339-1348. Neal, M. D., J. Cushieri, et al. (2009). "Preinjury statin use is associated with a higher risk of multiple organ failure after injury: a propensity score adjusted analysis." J Trauma 67(3): 476-482; discussion 482-474. Nishimori, H., K. Matsuo, et al. (2009). "The effect of adding rituximab to CHOP-based therapy on clinical outcomes for Japanese patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a propensity score matching analysis." Int J Hematol 89(3): 326-331. Pearl, J. (2009). "Remarks on the method of propensity score." Stat Med 28(9): 1415-1416; author reply 1420-1413. Qu, Y. and I. Lipkovich (2009). "Propensity score estimation with missing values using a multiple imputation missingness pattern (MIMP) approach." Stat Med 28(9): 1402-1414. Schneeweiss, S., J. A. Rassen, et al. (2009). "High-dimensional propensity score adjustment in studies of treatment effects using health care claims data." Epidemiology 20(4): 512-522. Showalter, T. N., A. S. Rao, et al. (2009). "Does intraoperative radiation therapy improve local tumor control in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma? A propensity score analysis." Ann Surg Oncol 16(8): 2116-2122. Smith, E. G., A. D. Henry, et al. (2009). "Antidepressant adequacy and work status among medicaid enrollees with disabilities: a restriction- based, propensity score-adjusted analysis." Community Ment Health J 45(5): 333-340. Suri, R. M., H. V. Schaff, et al. (2009). "Thoracoscopic versus open mitral valve repair: a propensity score analysis of early outcomes." Ann Thorac Surg 88(4): 1185-1190. Timberlake, D. S., J. Huh, et al. (2009). "Use of propensity score matching in evaluating smokeless tobacco as a gateway to smoking." Nicotine Tob Res 11(4): 455-462. Trojano, M., F. Pellegrini, et al. (2009). "observational studies: propensity score analysis of non-randomized data." Int MS J 16(3): 90-97. Vaccarino, G. N., J. Thierer, et al. (2009). "Impact of preoperative clopidogrel in off pump coronary artery bypass surgery: a propensity score analysis." J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 137(2): 309-313. Wechsler, A. S. (2009). "Mitral valve surgery for functional mitral regurgitation: should moderate to severe tricuspid regurgitation be treated? A propensity score analysis." J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 137(2): 267-268. Wendt, D., T. Buck, et al. (2009). "Results of a propensity score- matched comparison of the Perimount Magna and Mosaic Ultra aortic valve prostheses." J Heart Valve Dis 18(6): 703-711; discussion 712. Wu, C. K., J. L. Luo, et al. (2009). "A propensity score-based case- control study of renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms and diastolic heart failure." Atherosclerosis 205(2): 497-502. Zhao, H., T. R. Rebbeck, et al. (2009). "A propensity score approach to correction for bias due to population stratification using genetic and non-genetic factors." Genet Epidemiol 33(8): 679-690. Zheng, Z., H. Fan, et al. (2009). "Surgery of left ventricular aneurysm: a propensity score-matched study of outcomes following different repair techniques." Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 9(3): 431-436. Austin, P. C. (2010). "Statistical Criteria for Selecting the Optimal Number of Untreated Subjects Matched to Each Treated Subject When Using Many-to-One Matching on the Propensity Score." Am J Epidemiol. Boutwell, B. B. and K. M. Beaver (2010). "Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and offspring externalizing behavioral problems: a propensity score matching analysis." Int J Environ Res Public Health 7(1): 146-163. Brandt, S., S. Gale, et al. (2010). "Estimated effect of asthma case management using propensity score methods." Am J Manag Care 16(4): 257-264. Chang, S. N., J. W. Lin, et al. (2010). "Association between Genetic Polymorphisms in the Renin-Angiotensin System and Systolic Heart Failure Revised by a Propensity Score-Based Analysis." Cardiology 116(4): 279-285. Cheng, Y. W., A. Hubbard, et al. (2010). "The association between persistent fetal occiput posterior position and perinatal outcomes: an example of propensity score and covariate distance matching." Am J Epidemiol 171(6): 656-663. Chikwe, J., A. B. Goldstone, et al. (2010). "A propensity score- adjusted retrospective comparison of early and mid-term results of mitral valve repair versus replacement in octogenarians." Eur Heart J. Garwe, T., L. D. Cowan, et al. (2010). "A Propensity Score Analysis of Prehospital Factors and Directness of Transport of Major Trauma Patients to a Level I Trauma Center." J Trauma. Gonzalez, M., A. C. Arroliga, et al. (2010). "Airway pressure release ventilation versus assist-control ventilation: a comparative propensity score and international cohort study." Intensive Care Med 36(5): 817-827. Griswold, M. E., A. R. Localio, et al. (2010). "Propensity score adjustment with multilevel data: setting your sites on decreasing selection bias." Ann Intern Med 152(6): 393-395. Harder, V. S., E. A. Stuart, et al. (2010). "Propensity score techniques and the assessment of measured covariate balance to test causal associations in psychological research." Psychol Methods 15(3): 234-249. Hassanein, W., Y. Y. Hegazy, et al. (2010). "Short term outcomes of total arterial coronary revascularization in patients above 65 years: a propensity score analysis." J Cardiothorac Surg 5: 25. Hozawa, A., S. Kuriyama, et al. (2010). "Participation in health check- ups and mortality using propensity score matched cohort analyses." Prev Med. Hussein, M., J. S. Benner, et al. (2010). "Propensity score matching in the evaluation of drug therapy management programs: an illustrative analysis of a program for patients with hepatitis C virus." Qual Manag Health Care 19(1): 25-33. Ishiguro, F., K. Matsuo, et al. (2010). "Effect of selective lymph node dissection based on patterns of lobe-specific lymph node metastases on patient outcome in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer: a large-scale retrospective cohort study applying a propensity score." J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 139(4): 1001-1006. Jiang, M., E. M. Foster, et al. (2010). "Breastfeeding and the Child Cognitive Outcomes: A Propensity Score Matching Approach." Matern Child Health J. Jimenez, M. F., A. van Baardwijk, et al. (2010). "Effectiveness of surgery and individualized high-dose hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy on survival in clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer. A propensity score matched analysis." Radiother Oncol. Juhn, Y. J., R. Qin, et al. (2010). "The influence of neighborhood environment on the incidence of childhood asthma: a propensity score approach." J Allergy Clin Immunol 125(4): 838-843 e832. Kulkarni, A. V., J. M. Drake, et al. (2010). "Endoscopic third ventriculostomy vs cerebrospinal fluid shunt in the treatment of hydrocephalus in children: a propensity score-adjusted analysis." Neurosurgery 67(3): 588-593. Kuss, O., B. von Salviati, et al. (2010). "Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: a systematic review and meta-analysis of propensity score analyses." J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 140(4): 829-835, 835 e821-813. Lalani, T., C. H. Cabell, et al. (2010). 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