# Re: st: RE: Histograms (was: Multiple (overlaid) Histogram)

 From Marcello Pagano <[email protected]> To [email protected] Subject Re: st: RE: Histograms (was: Multiple (overlaid) Histogram) Date Fri, 30 May 2003 16:47:13 -0400

Fabulous. Yes, one must exercise judgment when using this with small numbers and/or possibly clumped data.
Bravo, Nick.

m.p.

Nick Cox wrote:

Marcello Pagano

As I have said before, I would very much like, with Allan Reese, an
option for equi-probability histograms. I think that this
is especially
useful when thinking of the histogram as an estimator of an
underlying
density function of a continuous variable. I do not see a strong
argument, other than tradition (laziness?), for being
constrained to
histograms with equi-spaced bins.

An interesting problem.

I see one key question arising.

If I understand this properly, we just need to find so many quantiles
x_(i) equally spaced on the probability scale and calculate bar
heights proportional to 1 / (x_(i+1) - x_(i)). In practice, it is
not that uncommon to get ties, implying infinite bar heights. We
can fudge this by interpolating linearly between different quantiles.

What lies below is a hack. The number of bins is wired in at no
more than 20. My experiments indicate that you need
a lot of data to avoid somewhat bizarre details. Essentially
you are bound to see the kind of instability inherent in crude
numerical derivatives.

Don't point out that density estimates are nicer! I know that.
This is an attempt at what Marcello wants.

Nick
[email protected]

Example:

sysuse auto
foreach v of var price-gear {
eqprhistogram `v'
more
}

program eqprhistogram
*! for Marcello, eppur si muove!
*! NJC 1.0.0 30 May 2003
version 8
syntax varname(numeric) [if] [in] [ , bin(numlist int >0 <=20) * ]

// #bins <= 20
if "`bin'" == "" local bin = 20
local binp1 = `bin' + 1
local binm1 = `bin' - 1

// enough data?
marksample touse
qui count if `touse'
if `r(N)' < `binp1' {
di as err "insufficient observations"
error 2000
}

tempvar quantile qnum qid qadd width x height id
qui {
// get quantiles
su `varlist' if `touse', meanonly
generate `quantile' = r(min) in 1
replace `quantile' = r(max) in `binp1'
_pctile `varlist' if `touse', nq(`bin')
forval i = 1/`binm1' {
replace `quantile' = r(r`i') in `= `i' + 1'
}

// prepare data set for graph: massage tied quantiles
preserve
keep if `quantile' < .
bysort `quantile' : gen byte `qnum' = _N
by `quantile' : gen byte `qid' = _n
gen `qadd' = `quantile'[_n + `qnum' - `qid' + 1] - `quantile'
replace `qadd' = `qadd' * (`qid' - 1) / `qnum'
replace `quantile' = `quantile' + `qadd' if `qid' > 1

gen `width' = `quantile'[_n+1] - `quantile'
gen `x' = (`quantile'[_n+1] + `quantile')/2
gen `height' = `qnum' / (`bin' * `width')

// vertices of bars
expand 6
sort `quantile'
gen byte `id' = mod(_n,6)
replace `height' = 0 if (`id' <= 1 | `id' >= 4)
replace `x' = `x' - 0.5 * `width' ///
if `id' == 1 | `id' == 2 | `id' == 5
replace `x' = `x' + 0.5 * `width' ///
if `id' == 3 | `id' == 4 | `id' == 0
}

// graph
_crcslbl `x' `varlist'
label var `height' "density"
twoway area `height' `x', bstyle(histogram) `options'
end

*
* For searches and help try:
* http://www.stata.com/support/faqs/res/findit.html
* http://www.stata.com/support/statalist/faq
* http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/stata/

```
*
*   For searches and help try:
*   http://www.stata.com/support/faqs/res/findit.html
*   http://www.stata.com/support/statalist/faq
*   http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/stata/
```