Stata 15 help for colorstyle

[G-4] colorstyle -- Choices for color

Syntax

Set color of <object> to colorstyle

<object>color(colorstyle)

Set color of all affected objects to colorstyle

color(colorstyle)

Set opacity of <object> to #, where # is a percentage of 100% opacity

<object>color(%#)

Set opacity for all affected objects colors to #

color(%#)

Set both color and opacity of <object>

<object>color(colorstyle%#)

Set both color and opacity of all affected objects

<object>color(colorstyle%#)

colorstyle Description ------------------------------------------------------------------------- black gs0 gray scale: 0 = black gs1 gray scale: very dark gray gs2 . . gs15 gray scale: very light gray gs16 gray scale: 16 = white white

blue bluishgray brown cranberry cyan dimgray between gs14 and gs15 dkgreen dark green dknavy dark navy blue dkorange dark orange eggshell emerald forest_green gold gray equivalent to gs8 green khaki lavender lime ltblue light blue ltbluishgray light blue-gray, used by scheme s2color ltkhaki light khaki magenta maroon midblue midgreen mint navy olive olive_teal orange orange_red pink purple red sand sandb bright sand sienna stone teal yellow

colors used by The Economist magazine: ebg background color ebblue bright blue edkblue dark blue eltblue light blue eltgreen light green emidblue midblue erose rose

none no color; invisible; draws nothing background or bg same color as background foreground or fg same color as foreground

"# # #" RGB value; white = "255 255 255"

"# # # #" CMYK value; yellow = "0 0 255 0"

"hsv # # #" HSV value; white = "hsv 255 255 255"

color*# color with adjusted intensity

*# default color with adjusted intensity ------------------------------------------------------------------------- When specifying RGB, CMYK, or HSV values, it is best to enclose the values in quotes; type "128 128 128" not 128 128 128.

Description

colorstyle sets the color and opacity of graph components such as lines, backgrounds, and bars. Some options allow a sequence of colorstyles with colorstylelist; see [G-4] stylelists.

Remarks

colorstyle sets the color and opacity of graph components such as lines, backgrounds, and bars. Colors can be specified with a named color, such as black, olive, and yellow, or with a color value in the RGB, CMYK, or HSV format. colorstyle can also set a component to match the background color or foreground color. Additionally, colorstyle can modify color intensity, making the color lighter or darker. Some options allow a sequence of colorstyles with colorstylelist; see [G-4] stylelists.

To see a list of named colors, use graph query colorstyle. See [G-2] graph query. For a color palette showing an individual color or comparing two colors, use palette color. See [G-2] palette.

Remarks are presented under the following headings:

Adjust opacity Adjust intensity Specify RGB values Specify CMYK values Specify HSV values Export custom colors

Adjust opacity

Opacity is the percentage of a color that covers the background color. That is, 100% means that the color fully hides the background, and 0% means that the color has no coverage and is transparent. Adjust opacity with the % modifier. For example, type

green%50 "0 255 0%50" %30

Omitting the color specification in the command adjusts the opacity of the object while retaining the default color. For instance, specify mcolor(%30) with graph twoway scatter to use the default fill color at 30% opacity.

Specifying color%0 makes the object completely transparent and is equivalent to color none.

Adjust intensity

Color intensity (brightness) can be modified by specifying a color, *, and a multiplier value. For example, type

green*.8 purple*1.5 "0 255 255*1.2" "hsv 240 1 1*.5"

A value of 1 leaves the color unchanged, a value greater than 1 makes the color darker, and a value less than 1 makes the color lighter. Note that there is no space between color and *, even when color is a numerical value for RGB or CMYK.

Omitting the color specification in the command adjusts the intensity of the object's default color. For instance, specify bcolor(*.7) with graph twoway bar to use the default fill color at reduced brightness, or specify bcolor(*2) to increase the brightness of the default color.

Specifying color*0 makes the color as light as possible, but it is not equivalent to color none. color*255 makes the color as dark as possible, although values much smaller than 255 usually achieve the same result.

For an example using the intensity adjustment, see Typical use in [G-2] graph twoway kdensity.

RGB values

In addition to specifying named colors such as yellow, you can specify colors with RGB values. An RGB value is a triplet of numbers ranging from 0 to 255 that describes the level of red, green, and blue light that must be emitted to produce a given color. RGB is used to define colors for on-screen display and in nonprofessional printing. Examples of RGB values are

red = 255 0 0 green = 0 255 0 blue = 0 0 255 white = 255 255 255 black = 0 0 0 gray = 128 128 128 navy = 26 71 111

CMYK values

You can specify colors using CMYK values. You will probably only use CMYK values when they are provided by a journal or publisher. You can specify CMYK values either as integers from 0 to 255 or as proportions of ink using real numbers from 0.0 to 1.0. If all four values are 1 or less, the numbers are taken to be proportions of ink. For example,

red = 0 255 255 0 or, equivalently, 0 1 1 0 green = 255 0 255 0 or, equivalently, 1 0 1 0 blue = 255 255 0 0 or, equivalently, 1 1 0 0 white = 0 0 0 0 or, equivalently, 0 0 0 0 black = 0 0 0 255 or, equivalently, 0 0 0 1 gray = 0 0 0 128 or, equivalently, 0 0 0 .5 navy = 85 40 0 144 or, equivalently, .334 .157 0 .565

HSV values

You can specify colors with HSV (hue, saturation, and value), also called HSL (hue, saturation, and luminance) and HSB (hue, saturation, and brightness). HSV is often used in image editing software. An HSV value is a triplet of numbers. So that Stata can differentiate them from RGB values, HSV colors must be prefaced with hsv. The first number specifies the hue from 0 to 360, the second number specifies the saturation from 0 to 1, and the third number specifies the value (luminance or brightness) from 0 to 1. For example,

red = hsv 0 1 1 green = hsv 120 1 .502 blue = hsv 240 1 1 white = hsv 0 0 1 black = hsv 0 0 0 navy = hsv 209 .766 .435

Export custom colors

graph export stores all colors as RGB+opacity values, that is, RGB values 0-255 and opacity values 0-1. If you need color values from Stata in CMYK format, use the graph export command with the cmyk(on) option, and save the graph in one of the following formats: PostScript, Encapsulated PostScript, or PDF.

You can set Stata to permanently use CMYK colors for PostScript export files by typing translator set Graph2ps cmyk on and for EPS export files by typing translator set Graph2eps cmyk on.

The CMYK values returned in graph export may differ from the CMYK values that you entered. This is because Stata normalizes CMYK values by reducing all CMY values until one value is 0. The difference is added to the K (black) value. For example, Stata normalizes the CMYK value 10 10 5 0 to 5 5 0 5. Stata subtracts 5 from the CMY values so that Y is 0 and then adds 5 to K.


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