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st: RE: risk ratio


From   jhilbe@aol.com
To   statalist@hsphsun2.harvard.edu
Subject   st: RE: risk ratio
Date   Sun, 21 Mar 2010 10:51:47 -0400

In response to the StataLister asking about creating a synthetic binary response model that
can be used to estimate a relative risk ratio:

I have an article coming out in the next Stata Journal that details how to create synthetic models for a wide variety of discrete response regression models. For your problem though, I think that the best approach is to create a synthetic binary logistic model with a single predictor - as you specified. Then model the otherwise logistic data as Poisson with a robust variance estimator. And the coefficient must be exponentiated. It can be interpreted as a relative
risk ratio.

Below is code to create a simple binary logistic model. Then model as mentioned above. You asked for a continuous pseudo-random variate, so I generated it from a normal distribution. I normally like to use pseudo-random uniform variates rather normal variates when creating these types of models, but it usually makes little difference. Recall that without a seed the model results will differ each time run. If you want the same results, pick a seed. I used my birthday.

I hope that this is what you were looking for.

Joseph Hilbe

*  intercept = 2;  Beta for X1=0.75
clear
set obs 50000
set seed 1230
gen x1 = invnorm(runiform())
gen xb = 2 + 0.75*x1
gen exb = 1/(1+exp(-xb))
gen by = rbinomial(1, exb)
glm by x1, nolog fam(bin 1)
glm by x1, nolog fam(poi) eform robust


. glm by x1, nolog fam(bin 1)
Generalized linear models No. of obs = 50000 Optimization : ML Residual df = 49998
                                                 Scale parameter = 1
Deviance = 37672.75548 (1/df) Deviance = .7534852 Pearson = 49970.46961 (1/df) Pearson = .9994494
Variance function: V(u) = u*(1-u)                  [Bernoulli]
Link function    : g(u) = ln(u/(1-u))              [Logit]
AIC = .7535351 Log likelihood = -18836.37774 BIC = -503294.5
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----
           |                 OIM
by | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+-----------------------------------------------------------
-----
x1 | .7534291 .0143134 52.64 0.000 .7253754 .7814828 _cons | 1.993125 .0149177 133.61 0.000 1.963887 2.022363
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----


. glm by x1, nolog fam(poi) eform robust
Generalized linear models No. of obs =50000 Optimization : ML Residual df = 49998
                                                 Scale parameter = 1
Deviance = 12673.60491 (1/df) Deviance = .2534822 Pearson = 7059.65518 (1/df) Pearson = .1411988
Variance function: V(u) = u                        [Poisson]
Link function    : g(u) = ln(u)                    [Log]
AIC = 1.970592 Log pseudolikelihood = -49262.80246 BIC = -528293.7
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----
           |               Robust
by | IRR Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+-----------------------------------------------------------
-----
x1 | 1.104476 .0021613 50.78 0.000 1.100248 1.10872
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----
.
Tomas Lind wrote:
Does anyone know how to generate fake data for a dichotomous outcome (0, 1) that is dependent on a continuous exposure variable in an epidemiological
relative risk context. I know how to use the logit transformation but in
that case exposure is proportional to log(ods) and not to risk.


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